Structure, Form, Color, etc. — The second stage in which the insects we are studying exist is known as the larval stage. The insect is known as a larva, or a caterpillar. In general caterpillars have long, worm-like bodies. Frequently they are thickest about the middle, tapering before and behind, and flattened on the underside. While the cylindrical shape is most common, there are some families in which the larvae are short, oval, or slug-shaped, sometimes curiously modified by ridges and prominences. The body of the larvae of Lepidoptera consists normally of thirteen rings, or segments, the first constituting the head.

The head is always conspicuous, composed of horny material, but varying exceedingly in form and size. It is very rarely small and retracted. It is generally large, hemispherical, conical, or billowed. In some families it is ornamented by horn-like projections. On the lower side are the mouth-parts, consisting of the upper lip, the mandibles, the antennae, or feelers, the under lip, the maxillae, and two sets of palpi, known as the maxillary and the labial palpi. In many genera the labium, or under lip, is provided with a short, horny projection known as the spinneret, through which the silk secreted by the caterpillar is passed. On either side, just above the mandibles, are located the eyes, or ocelli, which in the caterpillar are simple, round, shining prominences, generally only to be clearly distinguished by the aid of a magnifying-glass. The palpi are organs of touch connected with the maxillae and the labium, or under lip, and are used in the process of feeding, and also when the caterpillar is crawling about from place to place. The larva appears to guide itself in great part by means of the palpi.

The body of the caterpillar is covered by a thin skin, which often lies in wrinkled folds, admitting of great freedom of motion. The body is composed, as we have seen, of rings, or segments, the first three of which, back of the head, correspond to the thorax of the perfect insect, and the last nine to the abdomen of the butterfly. On each ring, with the exception of the second, the third, and the last, there is found on either side a small oval opening known as a spiracle, through which the creature breathes. As a rule, the spiracles of the first and eleventh rings are larger in size than the others.

Every caterpillar has on each of the first three segments a pair of legs, which are organs composed of three somewhat horny parts covered and bound together with skin, and armed at their extremities by a sharp claw. These three pairs of feet in the caterpillar are always known as the forelegs, and correspond to the six which are found in the butterfly or the moth. In addition, in most cases, we find four pairs of prolegs on the underside of the segments from the sixth to the ninth, and another pair on the last segment, which latter pair are called the anal prolegs. These organs, which are necessary to the life of the caterpillar, do not reappear in the perfect insect, but are lost when the transformation from the caterpillar to the chrysalis takes place. There are various modifications of this scheme of foot-like appendages, only the larger and more highly developed forms of Lepidoptera having as many pairs of prolegs as have been enumerated.

The bodies of caterpillars are variously ornamented: many of them are quite smooth; many are provided with horny projections, spines, and eminences. The coloration of caterpillars is as remarkable in the variety which it displays as is the ornamentation by means of the prominences of which we have just spoken. As caterpillars, for the most part, feed upon growing vegetation, multitudes of them are green in color, being thus adapted to their surroundings and securing a measure of protection. Many are brown, and exactly mimic the color of the twigs and branches upon which they rest when not engaged in feeding. Not a few are very gaily colored, but in almost every case this gay coloring is found to bear some relation to the color of the objects upon which they rest.

Caterpillars vary in their social habits. Some species are gregarious, and are found in colonies. These frequently build for themselves defenses, weaving webs of silk among the branches, in which they are in part protected from their enemies and also from the inclemencies of the weather. Most caterpillars are, however, solitary, and no community life is maintained by the vast majority of species. Many species have the habit of drawing together the edges of a leaf, in which way they form a covering for themselves. The caterpillars of some butterflies are wood-boring, and construct tunnels in the pith, or in the soft layers of growing plants. In these cases, being protected and concealed from view, the caterpillars are generally white in their coloration, resembling in this respect the larvae of wood-boring beetles. A most curious phenomenon has within comparatively recent years been discovered in connection with the larval stage of certain small butterflies belonging to the family Lyccznidce. The caterpillars are carnivorous, or rather aphidivorous; they live upon aphids, or plant-lice, and scale insects, and cover themselves with the white exudations or mealy secretions of the latter. This trait is characteristic of only one of our North American species, the Harvester (Feniseca tarquinius).

In addition to being protected from enemies by having colors which enable them to elude observation, as has been already stated, some caterpillars are provided with other means of defense. Early stages of the goat weed butterfly: swallowtail butterflies are provided with a bifurcate or forked organ, generally yellow in color, which is protruded from an opening in the skin back of the head, and which emits a powerful odor. This protrusive organ evidently exists only for purposes of defense, and the secretion of the odor is analogous to the secretion of evil odors by some of the vertebrate animals, as the skunk. The majority of caterpillars, when attacked by insect or other enemies, defend themselves by quickly hurling the anterior part of the body from side to side.

Moults.—Caterpillars in the process of growth and development from time to time shed their skins. This process is called molting. Molting takes place, as a rule, at regular intervals, though there are exceptions to this rule. The young larva, having emerged from the egg, grows for a number of days, until the epidermis, or true skin, has become too small. It then ceases feeding, attaches itself firmly to some point, and remains quiet for a time. During this period certain changes are taking place, and then the skin splits along the middle line from the head to the extremity of the last segment, and the caterpillar crawls forth from the skin, which is left behind it, attached to the leaf or branch to which it was fastened. The skin of the head sometimes remains attached to the head of the caterpillar for a time after it has molted, and then falls off to the ground. Ordinarily not more than five, and frequently only four, molts take place between hatching from the egg and the change into the chrysalis. In cases where caterpillars hibernate, or pass the winter in inaction, a long interval necessarily elapses between molts. Some arctic species are known in which the development from the egg to the perfect insect covers a period of two or three years, long periods of hibernation under the arctic snows taking place. The manner in which the caterpillar withdraws itself from its exuviae, or old skin, is highly interesting. Every little spine or rough prominence is withdrawn from its covering, and the skin is left as a perfect cast of the creature which has emerged from it, even the hairs and spines attached to the skin being left behind and replaced by others.

The Food of the Caterpillar.—The vast majority of the caterpillars of butterflies subsist upon vegetable food, the only exceptions being the singular one already noted in which the larvae feed upon scale-insects. Some have larvae which burrow in the roots and stems of vegetation.

Duration of the Larval State.—The duration of the larval state varies greatly. In temperate climates the majority of species exist in the caterpillar state for from two to three months, and where hibernation takes place, for ten months. Many caterpillars which hibernate do so immediately after emerging from the egg and before having made the first molt. The great majority, however, hibernate after having passed one or more molts. With the approach of spring they renew their feeding upon the first reappearance of the foliage of their proper food-plant, or are transformed into chrysalides and presently emerge as perfect insects. A few species live gregariously during the period of hibernation, constructing for themselves a shelter of leaves woven together with strands of silk.

Transformation. — The larval or caterpillar stage having been completed and full development having been attained, the caterpillar is transformed into a pupa, or chrysalis.

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